- Latin America – Children’s Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11)
- Latin America – Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 or over)
History of Latin America, reputation for the spot through the pre-Columbian period and including colonization by the Spanish and Portuguese start in the fifteenth century, the 19th-century wars of independency, and developments to the end of the century that is 20th.
Latin America is normally grasped to include the continent that is entire of America as well as Mexico, Central America, therefore the islands associated with Caribbean whose inhabitants talk a Romance language. The peoples of this large area shared the experience of conquest and colonization by the Spaniards and Portuguese through the late fifteenth through the 18th century in addition to motions of independency from Spain and Portugal into the early 19th century. Also since liberty, lots of the various countries have seen comparable trends, and additionally they possess some knowing of a heritage that is common. Nevertheless, there are additionally enormous differences between them. Not only do the people are now living in a large numbers of separate devices, however the geography and weather of these nations differ greatly. The inhabitantsвЂ™ social and cultural characteristics differ in line with the constitution of this occupants before the Iberian conquest, the timing and nature of European occupation, and their varying material endowments and roles that are economic.
Since the Spanish and Portuguese element l ms so big within the past history of the location, it’s sometimes proposed that Iberoamerica would have been a better term than Latin America. Latin appears to recommend an equal significance of the French and Italian contributions, that is far from being the case. Nonetheless, usage has fastened on Latin America, and it is retained right here.
This article treats the history of Latin America from the first occupation by Europeans to the late twentieth century, having an initial consideration for the indigenous and Iberian background. For more-detailed coverage of this area prior to contact that is european see pre-Columbian civilizations. For more information about the European exploration and colonization of Latin America, see colonialism. The Dominican Republic, and Haiti for information about the individual countries of Central America and South America as well as the Romance-language-speaking Caribbean countries, see specific country articles by name for Central America, seeBelize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama; for South America, see Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana (a dГ©partГ©ment of France), Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela; and, for the Caribbean, see Cuba. See additionally the articles on the dependencies and entities that are constituent, Martinique, and Puerto Rico. The real and peoples geography associated with continents, with some historic overview, are offered in the articles North America and South America. There’s also a split article Latin American literature. For discussion of major towns of Latin America and their histories, see certain articles by nameвЂ”e.g., Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, and Mexico City.
Though the conditions of pre-Columbian America and 15th-century Iberia are beyond the scope of Latin history that is american, they have to get consideration in that connection. Not merely did the geography of precontact America persist, but both the new arrivals and the indigenous inhabitants long retained their particular general traits, also it had been the fit between them that determined many areas of Latin evolution that is american.
The indigenous world and the word вЂњIndianвЂќ
From the time of Columbus as well as the belated century that is 15th, the Spaniards and Portuguese called the individuals of this Americas вЂњ IndiansвЂќвЂ”that is, inhabitants of Asia. Not merely could be the term erroneous by beginning, nonetheless it failed to correspond to such a thing into the minds of the people that are indigenous. That they had no wordвЂњinhabitant that is meaning of Western Hemisphere,вЂќ & most of these seem not to have used any comparable even with centuries of contact. Any such word relates to commonalities seen from the exterior and not to any unity perceived by the inhabitants of the Americas themselves. The indigenous peoples had been significantly varied, more so compared to Europeans; these people were spread more than a vast area and only faintly conscious of each other in one major area to another location.
Nonetheless, the peoples that are indigenous a number of things in accordance. These were closely pertaining to one another in biological terms, and their languages, though they can not be demonstrated to have a origin that is common have a tendency to share many basic features. All shared an isolation through the mass that is great of inhabiting Eurasia and Africa, who were one way or another in contact with the other person. The inhabitants of America all lacked immunities to diseases common in European countries and Africa. They had some impressive innovations to their credit, such as the domesticated flowers of Mesoamerica and also the Andes, but all was kept apart from items that had long since spread over much datemyage dating of the remaining portion of the world, including metal, firearms, horses, wheeled automobiles, long-distance delivery, and writing that is alphabetic. The indigenous peoples, once in contact, were very vulnerable to the outsiders as a result. Epidemics raged wherever intruders showed up; making use of their materials and strategies the Europeans had the ability to conquer whenever it was felt by them imperative to achieve this. There is certainly, then, in some instances, an importance of a term that is common of course one realizes its limitations, вЂњIndianвЂќ can do along with another.